Archive for the ‘Middle frontal gyrus’ Category

According to wikipedia, “Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (July 31, 1901 – May 12, 1985) was one of the most famous French painters and sculptors of the second half of the 20th century.”  “He coined the term Art Brut (meaning “raw art,” often times referred to as ‘outsider art’) for art produced by non-professionals working outside aesthetic norms, such as art by psychiatric patients, prisoners, and children.”  From this interest, he amassed the Collection de l’Art Brut, a sizable collection of artwork, of which more than half, was painted by artists with schizophrenia.  One such painting that typifies this style is shown here, entitled, General view of the island Neveranger (1911) by Adolf Wolfe, a psychiatric patient.

Obviously, Wolfe was a gifted artist, despite whatever psychiatric diagnosis was suggested at the time.  Nevertheless, clinical psychiatrists might be quick to point out that such work reflects the presence of an underlying thought disorder (loss of abstraction ability, tangentiality, loose associations, derailment, thought blocking, overinclusive thinking, etc., etc.) – despite the undeniable aesthetic beauty in the work.  As an ardent fan of such art,  it made me wonder just how “well ordered” my own thoughts might be.  Given to being rather forgetful and distractable, I suspect my thinking process is just sufficiently well ordered to perform the routine tasks of day-to-day living, but perhaps not a whole lot more so.  Is this bad or good?  Who knows.

However, Krug et al., in their recent paper, “The effect of Neuregulin 1 on neural correlates of episodic memory encoding and retrieval” [doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.062] do note that the brains of unaffected relatives of persons with mental illness show subtle differences in various patterns of activation.  It seems that when individuals are using their brains to encode information for memory storage, unaffected relatives show greater activation in areas of the frontal cortex compared to unrelated subjects.  This so-called encoding process during episodic memory is very important for a healthy memory system and its dysfunction is correlated with thought disorders and other aspects of cognitive dysfunction.  Krug et al., proceed to explore this encoding process further and ask if a well-known schizophrenia risk variant (rs35753505 C vs. T) in the neuregulin-1 gene might underlie this phenomenon.  To do this, they asked 34 TT, 32 TC and 28 CC individuals to perform a memory (of faces) game whilst laying in an MRI scanner.

The team reports that there were indeed differences in brain activity during both the encoding (storage) and retrieval (recall) portions of the task – that were both correlated with genotype – and also in which the CC risk genotype was correlated with more (hyper-) activation.  Some of the brain areas that were hyperactivated during encoding and associated with CC genotype were the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9), the bilateral fusiform gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus (BA 19).  The left middle occipital gyrus showed gene associated-hyperactivation during recall.  So it seems, that healthy individuals can carry risk for mental illness and that their brains may actually function slightly differently.

As an ardent fan of Art Brut, I confess I hoped I would carry the CC genotype, but alas, my 23andme profile shows a boring TT genotype.  No wonder my artwork sucks.  More on NRG1 here.

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Surgeon holding scalpel.
Image by bethd821 via Flickr

Whether you are a carpenter, plumber, mechanic, electrician, surgeon or chef, your livelihood depends on a set of sturdy, reliable, well-honed, precision tools.  Similarly, neuroscientists depend on their electrodes, brain scanners, microscopes and more recently their genome sequencers.  This is because they are not just trying to dissect the brain – the physical organ – but also the psychological one.  As the billions of neurons connected by trillions of synapses process electrical impulses – a kind of neural information – it is the great endeavor of cognitive-molecular-neuro-psychology (or whatever you wish to call the art) to figure out how all of those neurons and connections come into being and how they process information in ways that lead to your personality, self-image, hopes, dreams, memories and the other wonderful aspects of your mental life.  How and why does information flow through the brain in the way it does? and how and why does it do so in different ways for different people? Some, for instance, have informally related Sigmund Freud‘s models of mental structure to a kind of plumbing wherein psychic energy was routed (or misrouted) through different structural aspects of the mind (pipes as it were).  Perhaps such a model was fitting for the great industrial era in which he lived – but perhaps not in today’s highly information-based, inter-connected and network-oriented era.  If our understanding of mental life is a product of our tools, then perhaps we should be sure that our modern tools are up to the job.

One recent paper reminded me of how important it is to double check the accuracy and precision of one’s tools was the research article, “Quantifying the heritability of task-related brain activation and performance during the N-back working memory task: A twin fMRI study” [doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.03.006] by Blokland et al..  In this report, the team summarizes the results of measurments of the brain activity – not structure – but rather activity as measured by their chosen tool, the MRI scanner.  This research team, based in UCLA and known as one of the best in the field, asks whether the so-called BOLD response (an indirect measure of neural activity) shows greater concordance in identical (monozygotic) vs. fraternal (dizygotic) twins.  To generate brain activity, the research team asked the subjects to perform a task called an N-back  workng memory task, which entails having to remember something that happend “N” times ago (click here for further explanation of N-back task or play it on your iphone).  If you’ve done this, you’ll know that its hard – maddeningly so – and it requires a lot of concentration, which, the researchers were counting on to generate activity in the prefrontal cortex.

After looking at the brain activity patterns of some 29 MZ pairs and 31 DZ pairs, the team asked if the patterns of brain activity in the lateral frontal cortex were more similar in the MZ pairs vs. the DZ pairs.  If so, then it would suggest that the scanning technology (measurement of the BOLD response) is sufficiently reliable and precise enough to detect the fraction of individual differences in brain activty that arise from additive genetic variation.  If one actually had such super-precise tool, then one could begin to dissect and tease apart aspects of human cognition that are regulated by individual genetic variation – a very super-precise and amazing tool – that might allow us to understand mental life in biologically-based terms (and not Freud’s plumbingesque analogies).  If only such a tool existed! Somewhat amazingly, the scanning tools did seem to be able to detect differences between the BOLD response correlations of MZ pairs vs. DZ pairs.  The BOLD response correlations were greater for MZ vs. DZ in the middle frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus when activity for the 2-back task was compared to the 0-back task.  The team were cautious to extend these findings too far, since the standard deviations are large and the estimates of heritability for the BOLD response are rather low (11-36%), but, overall, the team suggests that the ability to use the fMRI methods in conjunction with genetic markers shows future promise.

Meanwhile, the literature of so-called “imaging-genetic” findings begins to grow in the literature.  I hope the tools are reliable and trustworthy enough to justify conclusions and lessons about human genetic variation and its role in mental life.  Will certainly keep this cautionary report in mind as I report on the cognitive genetics literature in the future.

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