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Posts Tagged ‘Long-Term Potentiation’

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In previous posts, we have explored some of the basic molecular (de-repression of chromatin structure) and cellular (excess synaptogenesis) consequences of mutations in the MeCP2 gene – a.k.a the gene whose loss of function gives rise to Rett syndrome.  One of the more difficult aspects of understanding how a mutation in a lowly gene can give rise to changes in cognitive function is bridging a conceptual gap between biochemical functions of a gene product — to its effects on neural network structure and dynamics.  Sure, we can readily acknowledge that neural computations underlie our mental life and that these neurons are simply cells that link-up in special ways – but just what is it about the “connecting up part” that goes wrong during developmental disorders?

In a recent paper entitled, “Intact Long-Term Potentiation but Reduced Connectivity between Neocortical Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome” [doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.1019-09.2009] Vardhan Dani and Sacha Nelson explore this question in great detail.  They address the question by directly measuring the strength of neural connections between pyramidal cells in the somatosensory cortex of healthy and MeCP2 mutant mice.  In earlier reports, MeCP2 neurons showed weaker neurotransmission and weaker plasticity (an ability to change the strength of interconnection – often estimated by a property known as “long term potentiation” (LTP – see video)).   In this paper, the authors examined the connectivity of cortical cells using an electrophysiological method known as patch clamp recording and found that early in development, the LTP induction was comparable in healthy and MeCP2 mutant animals, and even so once the animals were old enough to show cognitive symptoms.  During these early stages of development, there were also no differences between baseline neurotransmission between cortical cells in normal and MeCP2 mice.  Hmmm – no differences? Yes, during the early stages of development, there were no differences between genetic groups – however – once the team examined later stages of development (4 weeks of age) it was apparent that the MeCP2 animals had weaker amplitudes of cortical-cortical excitatory neurotransmission.  Closer comparisons of when the baseline and LTP deficits occurred, suggested that the LTP deficits are secondary to baseline strength of neurotransmission and connectivity in the developing cortex in MeCP2 animals.

So it seems that MeCP2 can alter the excitatory connection strength of cortical cells.  In the discussion of the paper, the authors point out the importance of a proper balance of inhibition and excitation (yin and yang, if you will) in the construction or “connecting up part” of neural networks.  Just as Rett syndrome may arise due to such a problem in the proper linking-up of cells – who use their excitatory and inhibitory connections to establish balanced feedback loops – so too may other developmental disorders such as autism, Down’s syndrome, fragile X-linked mental retardation arise from an improper balance of inhibition and excitation.

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